The learning process is a complex system,including the learning activity of both the teacher and the student, and based on real or supposed patterns that become pedagogical principles of learning.
The principles of teaching in pedagogy can be dividedon obschedidakticheskie and methodical. General pedagogical principles of teaching in pedagogy are principles that are proclaimed as general didactics and are mandatory in the study of any subject.
Methodological principles are divided intogeneral and private methods of teaching in pedagogy. Common principles include such principles as: a differentiated approach, the use of various exercises, methods and methods of teaching, the identification of specific landmarks (demonstration, explanation, reinforcement), motivation and an integrated approach to motivation. Private methods of teaching include such principles as the principle of oral anticipation, parallel learning, communicative orientation, the principle of the oral basis.
Didactic principles of teaching in pedagogyinclude the principle of scientific, systematic and consistent, clear, conscious and active, accessible and feasible, the principle of taking into account age features and the principle of strength of students' knowledge, skills and habits.
The principle of scientific character lies in the formation ofstudents in the system of scientific knowledge, in the analysis of educational material, the identification in it of important, significant ideas, in identifying possible intersubject connections, in using reliable scientific facts and knowledge, and in using accepted scientific terms.
A great role in the implementation of the scientific principle is played by technical means of teaching, video recordings, training films, film programs and so on.
The principle of systematics assumes that knowledge andskills will be inextricably linked and form an integral system, that is, the learning material will be learned at three levels: the level of reflection, understanding and assimilation. At the first level, the student should have a general idea of the subject, on the second level he must master theoretical knowledge about the subject, and on the third level - practical skills that are achieved as a result of exercises and training.
The essence of the principle of accessibility is to reflectprinciples of continuity, gradualness and consistency of training. That is, you first need to identify previously formed knowledge, skills and skills, and only then gradually give new ones, without forcing this process and not skipping certain stages. When organizing the training, it is necessary to choose methods, means and forms of training that correspond to the level of mental, psychological and physical development of the student.
The principle of visibility involves not justan illustration of the studied subject or phenomenon, but the use of a whole set of tools, techniques and methods that ensure the formation of a clearer and clearer perception of the knowledge communicated. A large role in using the visual method belongs to verbal comments.
For example, when teaching some motoractions do not just show this or that exercise, but must comment on it, getting the student to realize each phase of the movement. The student should not only form his motoristic idea of the action being studied, but feel all the features of the performance of this action.
The principle of consciousness and activity is basedon the formation of motivation among students, the internal need for the study of a particular material, and systematic incitement to the material under study. If the student does not want to study this or that material, then there will be no benefit from the lessons.
The principle of the strength of the knowledge, skills andskills is impossible without the allocation in the teaching material of the main and link it with the knowledge already available to the student. In order for knowledge and skills to become the internal property of the student, it is necessary to include them in the system of beliefs and views of the student. It is also necessary to ensure the constant connection of the training material with practical activities.
The principles of education and upbringing shouldtake into account age and individual characteristics. However, in each group of schoolchildren - both by age and in each class - there are often some individual differences that manifest themselves in the peculiarities of the development of any mental processes, in the difference in the level of development of abilities, and also in the direction of interests and needs.
The individual characteristics of boys also differand girls. All pedagogical principles of education must take into account these really existing differences. In no case can you expect that there is any completely universal recipe that is suitable for all cases.</ p>