Crossroads of caravan routes of North Africanear the oasis of Ammon - the historically recognized homeland of ammonia. The priests worshiping the god Amon used hydrogen nitride during their rituals, which, when heated, exuded the smell of ammonia. They were called Amonians, apparently the name ammonia went from those times.
Modern scientists not only learned how to extractammonia in its pure form, find a lot of applications for it, but also could model the construction of a molecule of matter that in the circles of professional chemists was called "hydrogen nitride". The remarkable configuration of the ammonia molecule is that it is a regular pyramid, similar to those that witnessed the first synthesis of this substance in ancient Egypt.
Nitrogen, located at the top of the consideredpyramids, forms polar bonds with hydrogen atoms. The nitrogen atom in the compound has an unshared pair of electrons, which is the main condition for the appearance of the ability of ammonia to form donor-acceptor and hydrogen bonds, which in their time in a compartment with a significant polarity of the ammonia molecule became the reasons for strong interaction between them. As a result, the characterization of ammonia differs from the properties and characteristics of substances of this type.
Everyone knows the smell of ammonia, it is associated with the appearance of ammonia, which is a colorless gas, lighter than air in half. For humans, it is toxic, has a high solubility.
Ammonia has its own chemical propertiesthanks largely to the unshared e-pair. It is able to attach a proton to it, resulting in the formation of an ammonium ion. In aqueous solution, ammonia (known as ammonia) has a slightly alkaline reaction. Ammonium contributes to the production of ammonium salts by reaction with acids. The chemical properties of this compound are similar to nucleophiles or complexing agents.
On the other hand, ammonia exhibits weak propertiesacid and is able to react with metals, forming amides. Amides from alkali metals are obtained when exposed to them with ammonia. Salts of imides and nitrides from a number of metals are obtained by performing a reaction in liquid ammonia. Nitrides are obtained by heating the metal in a nitrogen atmosphere.
Metal amides exhibit the properties of hydroxides. And like alkalis, ammonia solutions of amide salts are good conductors of electric current.
Ammonia chemical properties in interaction withphenolphthalein shows, staining in red, the addition of acid leads to its neutralization. Heating ammonia allows it to manifest itself as a reducing agent. It is able to burn in oxygen, the result is water and nitrogen. When oxidizing ammonia on a catalyst from platinum, we obtain nitric oxide, a product for the industrial synthesis of nitric acid.
The reducing ability of nitrogen is appliedTo clean metal surfaces from oxides during soldering. When oxidizing ammonia with sodium hypochlorite (a mandatory condition for the presence of gelatin), hydrazine is obtained. Reaction with halogens (chlorine, iodine) leads to the production of explosives.
Thus, it is of great importanceindustrial synthesis of ammonia. The reaction of its preparation has the form of interaction of nitrogen and hydrogen. It is also called the Haber process. As a result of the reaction, heat is released and the volume is reduced. Favorable conditions for the synthesis of ammonia are low temperatures and high pressures.
Taking into account, receiving ammonia, the chemical properties of some substances act as catalysts for this process. Their application made it possible to accelerate the attainment of a state of equilibrium.</ p>