Today, successful entrepreneurial activityIt is impossible without carrying out marketing research. For those companies that produce products or services, provide advice or engage in trading activities, it is extremely important to study consumers, their needs, specific and standard inquiries, and the psychological and cultural aspects that guide them in the buying process.
What does the analysis of markets include
The process of gathering information about the market situationmarketing of products, customer inquiries and major trends in a competitive environment is an essential part of the marketing department's activities. Many decisions regarding the volume and structure of products, as well as strategies for its promotion and sale, are based on the information that specialists receive as a result of the analysis of markets. In order for the data to be as reliable and useful to the company, the analysis should include the following:
- Drawing up a general characteristic of the markets where the product is expected to be sold, as well as estimating their volume and calculating the share of the enterprise.
- Studying the dynamics of the market development, forecasting its possible changes, identifying the main factors that affect these parameters.
- Formulation of the basic requirements that consumers make to the product.
- Analysis of the competitors' market: their technical capabilities, market influence, information about the price and quality of the product.
- Identify the advantages that the enterprise has over competitors.
Marketing and its tasks
By and large, the main purpose of marketingbecomes optimization of the process of selling goods or services by improving the consistency of their quality and composition with the needs of end-users. In other words, the head of the enterprise expects that marketers will learn the universal and specific needs of the consumer, analyze the situation of competing companies and find an ideal sales market for the sale of the product.
Paradoxes and features of the consumer market
To study the behavior of consumers, a whole segment of marketing has been identified. He collects information about how customers choose a product (service, idea) and what they say about the experience of using it.
Analysis of consumers is faced with considerablethe number of difficulties and problems, because it is not so simple to find out what the buyers want, to understand their motivation and behavior. Many buyers are happy to take part in surveys and give answers about what they want or what they need. However, being in the store, they show completely different inclinations and commit unpredictable actions.
The buyer may not be aware of the incentivemotives of their purchases, to say what is expected of him (therefore his answers are unreliable) or to change his decision at the last moment. Consequently, the subject of marketers' research are stereotypes of behavior peculiar to the target consumer, as well as what he needs, what he wants, how he perceives the goods, and what route he chooses to the place of sale of the product.
Query statistics (phrases that Internet users enter into the search box) can serve as a more or less objective reliable source of information.
The result of the use of improved andscientifically developed questionnaires was the allocation of eight basic motives, which guided almost everyone who decides on the appropriateness of any acquisition. The analysis of consumers has established that buyers aspire to:
- Be safe.
- Feel your own worth.
- Concentrate on your ego.
- To show creativity.
- To be donors and recipients of love.
- Have power.
- Preserve family cultural values and traditions.
- Get immortality.
The universality of this list is that it is absolutely relevant for any product (product or service) and can be used by almost every marketer.
What is called the model of consumer behavior
Until recently, marketing specialists were forcedwere to conduct an analysis of consumers in "combat conditions", that is, directly in the process of selling goods. The increase in companies and the growth of their structures led to the removal of marketing managers from the ultimate buyer. Today these people do not contact the consumers personally. They consider the behavior of buyers on abstract models, the essence of which is what response the buyer has to various marketing incentives.
The task of these specialists is to study the processes that take place in the mind of the consumer in a brief period from the impact of an external stimulus to the decision to purchase.
As a result, the analysis of consumers is reduced to finding answers to two main questions:
- How can the cultural, social, personal and psychological component of the buyer affect his behavior in the store?
- How is the purchasing decision formed?
Cultural factors and their impact on consumer demands
The impact of cultural factors onthe behavior of buyers is regarded as quite significant. The general cultural level, the influence of certain subcultures and the social class is important. Analysis of consumer markets through the prism of cultural values provides a lot of useful data, because it is culture that can be called the determining factor of the needs and behavior of many people.
Culture is instilled in children from a small age, firmly introducing specific sets of values, stereotypes of perception and behavior. This is promoted by the family, educational and public institutions.
Portrait of the consumer: belonging to the social class
The division of society into social classes and strata,to some extent, determines the needs and desires of the majority of consumers. Social classes are rather homogeneous and stable groups of people, united by common values, interests and behavior.
The analysis of the sales market includes studyingTherefore, it is absolutely necessary for the marketer to understand how different the income, work, education, place of residence, housing conditions and even the level of general development of different social classes and strata of the population.
Buyers belonging to the same class,find identical or very close preferences regarding the choice of different products (clothes, home furniture, leisure, cars, food). Knowing the consumer market and the tastes of its target audience, a competent marketer will be able to use this effective lever of influence and stimulate demand for a specific product.
What are social factors and how do they affect the psychology of the consumer?
Among the social factors that influence how consumers evaluate the need to make a purchase, they distinguish:
- Reference group.
The impact of primary and secondary membership groups should also be considered. This environment, which to some extent forms a subjective view of a person for a particular need.
The primary group of members are family members, friends, and employees. Secondary - a professional team, religious communities, clubs. The reference groups carry out the following impact on the consumer:
- Can affect how an individual treats life and himself.
- Are capable to push the person to the certain actions and sights which as a result will generate its behavior and a life style.
- Can and affect what products and brands the individual prefers.
In addition to the influence of those groups to which a personhe may be subject to the influence of an external (alien), but attracting his community. Seeking to look like members of the "desirable group", the individual buys goods that embody for him another way of life.
Family as an important factor affecting consumer behavior
Families are the first and often the most lasting relationship for many people. Being closely associated with parents or guardians, children adopt their preferences, habits and landmarks.
In the vocabulary of marketers there are such concepts as:
- Family instructors.
- Born families.
The first type is a society in which a personwas born and grew up (parents, next of kin). Here are laid the notion of religion, life goals, feelings of self-worth and love. Also, the instructive family becomes an environment with certain political and economic views. All grains planted in childhood, bear fruit later, throughout life.
True, the role and influence of the family (wife, spouse, children) is much higher. In comparison with the indirect influence of the instructive family, it can be called direct.
Personal factors of the buyer
The value of this category can not be compared withthe influence of the others, since the individual characteristics of man (physiological, economic, psychological) are a unique combination of all other factors.
Among the most significant, you can specify:
- Age of the person, stage of the family cycle. These indicators directly determine what goods the consumer may need. Children need to buy baby food, adults are trying to try out new products and exotic, and closer to old age, many have to switch to diets. In addition, analytics and query statistics in the most popular search engines confirm the fact that the structure of consumption is greatly influenced not only by the life cycle of the family, but also by the psychological stage of the family's life. Today, the marketer necessarily pays attention to the specific needs of people after divorce, widowhood, remarriage or other important events.
- Scope of the consumer. This indicator is almost the most important, because it depends on the type of occupation of a person depends on his income and needs. Workers are forced to buy and wear special clothes and shoes, while presidents of corporations can not do without expensive suits and membership in suburban clubs for the elite. The task of the marketer is to determine the groups and categories of consumers in accordance with the nature of their occupation and professional activity. In accordance with these data, the manufacturer will be able to give the product specific characteristics.
- Economic situation. Of course, most purchases are planned by the individual with an eye on their own financial capabilities. Characteristics of the economic situation of a person is the level and stability of the expenditure side of the budget, the amount of savings and assets, the existence of debts, creditworthiness, as well as the relation to the process of accumulation of money.
- The way of life is another personal factor,which should be distinguished from the social class and occupation, since it is customary to call the form of being a person, expressed through activity, interests and opinions. The way of life most capacitively reflects the essence of man, as well as his ways of interacting with the society. The success of a marketer largely depends on the ability to "move the bridge" from the company's products to groups that are united in a way of life. For example, the head of the company for the manufacture of computer equipment can see that the distinguishing feature of the contingent of its customers is the orientation toward achieving professional success. The natural consequence is the more in-depth studies of this target group, as well as the use of symbols and words in the advertising campaign that are correlated with success.
In general, the analysis of the sales market is aimed atcreate a product that will be most useful and attractive to the consumer. In extreme cases, the product should look like this. The formation of a positive image of the product is achieved by developing the right, "working" packaging and advertising campaign.
In accordance with the unspoken marketing rule,the product is better sold if it has a favorable image. That is, the image of the product should be associated only with the notions of well-being that are specific to certain categories of buyers. An illustration of an unpleasant or painful aspect is considered inadmissible.
Studying of all marketing wisdoms,careful analysis of the data, the use of psychology, sociology and economics are applied precisely to satisfy the buyer's need, to provide what he so lacks (or seems to lack).
Often the company resorts to such a method as the education of its client. This approach involves offering a completely new product along with popularizing the problem that it solves.</ p>