The novel "Fathers and Sons", written by I.S. Turgenev - a work on the conflict of two generations, which clearly marked the contradiction of representatives of the old aristocratic culture and adherents of new views.
The historical basis of the novel
Clash of interests of liberals and revolutionary democrats on the eve of events
Kirsanovs represent the outgoing noble culture. Bazarov is a supporter of revolutionary democratic reforms.
The debate of generations in the novel "Fathers and Sons" - othe position of the people, the relationship to art, history, literature. The book says a lot about the contradiction of two generations on a variety of issues, including the system of human behavior, moral principles. Not for nothing that reviewers call this novel a product of ideological disputes.
The debate of generations in literature
Many authors touch on the issue of conflictgenerations. The contradiction between fathers and children finds expression in Pushkin's novel "Eugene Onegin." The main character of M.Yu. Lermontov "Hero of Our Time". Odinok Chatsky in the comedy Griboyedov "Woe from Wit".
In each of these works there is a dispute of generations. "Fathers and children" is a novel in which this contradiction sounds the main theme and involves almost all spheres of life.
The idea of abolishing serfdom and attitude to the nobility
The debate of generations in the novel "Fathers and Sons"stresses the need to abolish the serfdom. The work shows the difficult fate of serfs, ignorance of the common people. This idea is voiced by the author at the very beginning of the work in the form of Arkady's reflections on the poverty of the people and the urgent need for transformations of the existing regime. Turgenev reflects in the novel about the fate of the country and people.
The author of the novel "Fathers and Sons"
I.S. Turgenev on the political content of his work says that his idea is directed against the nobility and rejects it as an advanced class. The author calls Arkady and his uncle, Pavel Petrovich, weak and limited. At the same time, he notes that these are the best representatives of the nobility. This state of affairs shows the failure of the aristocracy.
The author notes certain advantages of the nobility, but considers it historically an unpromising class.
The ideological conflict PP. Kirsanov and Bazarov
The debate of generations in the novel "Fathers and Sons" is particularly evident in the clash of views on the existing order of things of Pavel Petrovich and Eugene.
There are four types of issues on which these heroes are arguing. Consider them.
The first question is the attitude to the nobility. Pavel Petrovich believes that aristocrats are those who contribute to the development of society. Bazarov, on the other hand, says that aristocrats are not able to act and do not benefit society. The nobility, in his opinion, can not contribute to the development of Russia.
The second issue, which causes a contradiction betweenheroes, is an attitude toward nihilism. Bazarov does not recognize any authority and takes nothing for granted. He is independent, has independent thinking, for him the essence of the problem is important, and not the attitude of others towards it. However, no matter how practical Bazarov is, human feelings are also characteristic of him. He fell in love with Anna Odintsov and could not help talking to her.
The views of the two heroes differ by the common people andhis fate. Pavel Petrovich glorifies the patriarchy of the peasant family, religion. Bazarov believes that the peasants are ignorant and incapable of understanding their interests. It is necessary to distinguish the prejudices of the people from its interests. Kirsanov says a lot about the need to serve the fatherland, but at the same time he lives quietly and well. Bazarov is closer than Kirsanov to the common people in his social position: he is a raznochinets and must work. It should be noted that Eugene does not like inaction. Work enthralls him, he does not respect idleness and laziness.
The last question, which causes disagreement between the two characters, is the attitude towards
The attitude of contemporaries to the novel
The debate of generations in literature is a topic that has been raised by many writers.
However, immediately after the publication of the novel receivedcritical reviews of both conservatives and democrats. Thus, in particular, Antonovich wrote that Bazarov was nothing but a slander against the younger generation. The critic does not see the artistic value of this work.
Pisarev expressed a different attitude to the novel. In the article "Bazarov" he justifies the indifference of the hero to the future of the common people. In addition, the author of the article is in agreement with Bazarov's attitude to art.
The debate of generations in the works of many authors -the topic is far from new. However, it should be noted that in the novel, the ideological clashes between fathers and children are considered to a greater degree than the contradictions of the nobles and raznochintsy who embody the future of the country.</ p>