Repair is a delicate and demanding taskapproach. To keep it fresh for longer, when you do it you need to do everything qualitatively. Aligning the walls is one of the most important and complex works in the repair. Usually this is done with plaster. But if you do not want to invite a master for such a job, it is worthwhile first thoroughly to find out how to properly level the walls with plaster. To do everything accurately, you need to carefully study the issue and consult with knowledgeable people. About how to level the walls with plaster, we'll tell in the article.
A little about the material
Plaster is a building mixture based on gypsum, lime or cement with sand. It can be white and colored. Serves for finishing. If it is decorative, it is the last stage of repair.
If it is noise- or waterproof,heat-protective or special, then on top of it you need to glue the wallpaper or paint with a paint for interior or exterior surfaces (they are highly resistant to moisture, temperature extremes, ultraviolet rays and wind).
Before you level the walls with plaster, you need to decide which one is right for your work.
Types of coating
Decorative plaster has several more varieties:
- the Venetian.
The first 2 species form a rough surface, for which they are called "relief". And the latter covers the wall perfectly even layer and makes it smooth.
According to the binding agent used, the plaster is divided into:
- acrylic (the main substance is acrylic resin, suchthe building material has a high elasticity, it can be painted in any color, but it is sold only in ready-made form and has the ability to quickly crack from the effects of UV rays);
- mineral (the cheapest type of mixture, based oncement; it well tolerates the sun's rays, suitable for rooms with high humidity and street, but is afraid of mechanical damage and strong water pressure);
- silicone (in it the connecting component issynthetic resin, produced in the form of a ready mix and different colors, is resistant to damage and rays, it is used to cover walls in any premises and streets, since it forms a strong layer);
- silicate (the liquid glass that lies at its base,increases water-repellent properties and resistance to mold and rot; is the most reliable type of coating, can serve without overhaul for more than 30 years).
What plaster to level the walls, each solves itself based on the characteristics of the surface, the material, as well as the room. Any of the described is environmentally safe.
Preliminary preparation of walls
Work on leveling is carried out after that,how all the work on laying electrical cables, pipes and other materials has been completed. Before you level the walls with plaster, you need to clean them from the old layer of wallpaper, paint and other materials, and also to level the surface. This can be done with the help of special solutions and spatula, as well as construction skins.
Next, you need to check the walls forirregularities and verticality. To eliminate the roughness, you can resort to a metal grid, which is attached to the surface with the help of nails. Also, it must first be cleaned of dirt and dust, otherwise the mixture simply will not hold.
If the wall was covered with plaster, you needtap her with a wooden mallet to identify the areas where she lagged behind the wall, and remove it in these places completely. If there are cracks on the surface of the coating, they can be cleaned with a damp brush. But all the mold (if any) should be completely removed together with part of the coating, because otherwise it will grow further, destroying the coating.
After this, it is necessary to treat the surfaceprimer, which does not allow the first to absorb moisture from the plaster. After the primer has dried for full and high quality finishing, it is necessary to coat the walls with putty to completely level the wall for plastering. It is sold as a powder for dilution with water, and in the form of a ready mix, which is applied by a spatula directly on the wall. It is especially important to comply with all stages of preparation, if the final layer is a decorative coating, since it will not hide the flaws of the surface, if it was not processed.
Plaster and putty are two different mixtures. Many people confuse them or do not see the difference. The first is designed to handle a large surface area, and the second - to adjust for minor defects (cracks, seams, etc.).
Verification of verticality
Before you level the walls with plaster,You need to find out how smooth the vertical surfaces are. This is done in different ways, professional builders and finishers for this have special sophisticated tools that give accurate results. At home, you can use a straight rail length from ceiling to floor or plumb. Such a tool should be perfectly straight and not bend. The rail is applied parallel to the wall, and the maximum gap between them will mean the most necessary layer of material for alignment.
The method with a plumb line is somewhat more complicated. It is necessary to hammer a nail under the ceiling, tie a lace with a load to it and visually or with the help of measuring instruments determine whether the wall and the lace are parallel to each other.
Alignment with plaster
When all previous work is done, beforehow to level the walls with plaster, you need to prepare a mixture. How to build plaster, which is sold as a powder, is written on the package. If you bought ready, then observe the storage conditions, otherwise it will dry up quickly. Next, using a spatula, we cast the molds from the top down and use a tool called "rule" to flatten the coating. If it does not exist, you can do it with other tools, but it will not turn out that smoothly.
During the works it is necessary to useprotective equipment - a mask and glasses, so as not to inhale powder or vapors (there may be an allergy). And also should take into account the maximum thickness of the applied layer - it is indicated on the package, and different brands may be different.
Alignment with plasterboard
There are several more ways to level the wallswithout plaster. Often resorted to the method of using gypsum board. Drywall is 2 sheets of cardboard, between which is a dry gypsum. It does not leak moisture and keeps the shape well for a long time. Mounted with metal profiles or mounting glue. Seams between sheets are covered with building compounds. It is usually easier to glue wallpaper, than on other surfaces, especially concrete. Advantages of this method are less time consuming, low pollution of the apartment and the possibility to level the walls with any irregularities.
But he also has shortcomings: plasterboard can not be used for wet rooms and on the street, it is difficult to lay a tile, because it is too smooth, and cement-based glue can not hold properly. Also, it is better not to resort to gypsum plasterboard in the premises of a small area, because it takes away space.
The walls can be aligned visually. In this case, global work is not required, it is possible to level the surface with building mixes only in corners and under the ceiling. And at the finish finish, the skirting boards will be glued at the correct right angle, which visually aligns the walls.
How to level the walls after plastering, if necessary
The drying time of the coating depends on the thickness of the layer. So, a layer of about 1-3 mm thick will dry for 1-2 days, but the exterior walls can be covered with plasters of 5-10 mm for a month, during which the coating will dry completely.
If the coating of the wall with plaster was the finishstep before painting or wallpapering, then after completely drying it can be cleaned with a construction sandpaper (sandpaper). It will remove all the flaws and make the wall perfectly even if it was not. The main thing is not to overdo it so as not to erase too much.
If the plaster is decorative, then the strippingsandpaper can be done, but very carefully and only with great need, since you can erase the color layer and have to cover again. If the material contains marble chips or other additives to create unevenness, then additional processing is not required.</ p>