The threat of an ecological catastrophe is one of theglobal problems of mankind. False notions about the inexhaustibility of resources, a pragmatic attitude to all living things put the existence of humans, animals and plants at risk. Realizing the danger of the situation, the members of the United Nations in 1992 established a festive date: April 15 - Day of Environmental Knowledge.
What is ecology?
Ecology (Greek. "The science of habitat") is the doctrine of the interaction of people with other beings, the environment. They also highlight the human ecology, which studies the problems of population, physical and mental health of homo sapiens, human capabilities.
Environmental knowledge is called knowledge of properties,variety of objects and phenomena of nature. We do not mean the idea of how the organisms live, multiply, but search for optimal ways of preserving favorable conditions for all inhabitants of the planet.
Elementary knowledge of ecology is necessary for each of us to learn how to protect the environment. That is why April 15, Day of Environmental Knowledge - a date that is significant for all people on Earth.
Development of ecology as a science
Primitive man considered himself a part of the world,completely dependent on the elements, so I was forced to observe what was happening around, to make elementary generalizations. The first knowledge of the natural laws taking place in nature was not of a scientific nature, but contributed to the survival of people. The disparate facts gradually formed in the system.
Purposefully to investigate living beings beganin the Ancient World. The first source, narrating about the way of life of fish, animals, birds, was the work of Aristotle "Animal Stories". The author paid close attention to the interconnection of the way of life of our younger brothers with their habitat. Similar questions were also considered in the works of Theophrastus and Pliny the Elder.
Great interest in studying the environmentexhibited in the Renaissance. Scientists actively analyzed the flora and fauna of their homeland, other lands discovered by great travelers. The first ecological experiment was put by Robert Boyle. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of atmospheric pressure on the way animals live.
Later, the influence of environmental factors on organismsstudied by Karl Linnaeus, J. Buffon, J.B. Lamarck, scientists of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The term "ecology" was first proposed by Ernst Haeckel. As an independent scientific knowledge, ecology took shape at the beginning of the 20th century. Further development of the theory of the interaction of the organism and the environment is associated with the names of K.A. Timiryazeva, V.V. Dokuchaev, F. Clemens, V.N. Sukachev.
A new methodology of science was developed by V.I. Vernadsky. The scientist introduced the concept of "noosphere", which meant the state of the biosphere, formed under the influence of people's thinking activity. The driving force behind the further development of life on the Earth is the mind, which is ordered to rebuild the "living shell" of the planet in the interests of mankind.
Environmental problems began seriouslyconsidered in the sixties of the twentieth century. Decades later began to celebrate the Day of Environmental Knowledge. Scenario on April 15 (list of celebrations) organizations are developing themselves.
Since 1996 in Russia every year starts the project "Days of environmental protection from environmental hazards". Targeted work with the population begins on April 15. Day of ecological knowledge is also the first day of the action.
About two months with the students are conductedlecture and practical classes of ecological orientation. Schoolchildren defend natural projects, arrange exhibitions, travel along ecological paths, visit zoos, young naturalists' stations, sanctuaries. Adults speak at conferences and seminars, report on the implementation of state environmental programs. So, April 15 (Day of Environmental Knowledge) in the Smolensk Zoo begins with classes on "Man and Nature." The staff of the institution strive to form an understanding among the younger generation that man is the only creature that can prevent a catastrophe. Teachers and staff of the institution gather for the final conferences.
No less interesting is the Day of Environmentalknowledge (April 15) at school. Educators-enthusiasts gather students for class hours, conduct ecological lessons, organize actions, organize master classes on the manufacture of starling-boxes, planting trees, cleaning the territory, suggest checking the degree of personal interest in saving the planet.
On the Day of Environmental Knowledge (April 15)events are held with the aim of forming people's eco-centric type of consciousness. In the XIX-XX century. the thinking of scientists and ordinary citizens was anthropocentric. Attitude to the environment at the time corresponded to the statement of the hero IS. Turgenev about the nature-workshop and the man-worker. In terms of environmental knowledge, a person's life is viewed not from the position "what the environment gives me", but from the point of view of how to interact with other beings, so that everyone will feel good.
Aware of the danger of an ecological catastrophe,scientists create different scenarios for the development of life on Earth. Someone believes that the civilization of the future will become completely technogenic. Some people are close to the idea of non-waste production, limiting consumption of resources, development of other planets. Despite contradictory views, most specialists agree on one thing: the situation can not be rectified without ecologizing the technologies, spheres of activity and lifestyle of a person.
The biosphere will exist without humans, the existence of homo sapiens without the biosphere is impossible. This should be remembered on April 15 (Day of Environmental Knowledge), as well as all other days of the year.
For the first time about international environmental programsspoke in 1972 at a conference under the aegis of the UN in Stockholm. The first global project was monitoring. Monitoring of fresh water, forests, mountain systems, desert, etc. is carried out at stations around the world.
Since 1986 the InternationalThe geosphere-biosphere program, whose projects include the definition of climate change, the regularities of chemical and biochemical processes, the analysis of the results of ecosystem interactions. Careful attention is paid to the peculiarities of the biocenoses of the past and to prediction. Fruitful cooperation of specialists from different countries leads to positive results.</ p>