All the foundations are laid in two periods: intrauterine and preschool. This applies to both psychological characteristics and physiological characteristics. That is why both the psychological and physical development of children of preschool age should be under the closest attention.
The development of preschoolers is strikingly different fromdevelopment in younger age. The first years the body of the baby grows very intensively and relatively evenly. Since the age of four, development has slowed somewhat. Over the next three years, the increase in growth is about 15 cm on average, in weight - 5 kg. The indicators are, of course, standard and may vary slightly.
At this time, the physical development of children beginsgradually approach the body of an adult, allowing to withstand higher loads compared with the early period. But too high loads, of course, are unacceptable. The musculoskeletal device is actively formed, when the natural bends in the spine are not yet fully formed and therefore are not fixed. It is important here not to ignore the posture, keeping it under constant supervision. It is from this age begin to detect scoliosis, kyphosis, other disorders.
There is an active process of ossification of the cartilaginous tissue,that's why with special caution you need to treat the loads. And especially this is the lower extremities. Bunches and muscles are still too weak for heavy loads. And taking into account the unshapeness of the cartilaginous tissue, the incorrect physical education of children can lead to injuries and violations dangerous at this age (for example, flat feet).
Significant differences in muscle systemspreschoolers and adults explain the rapid fatigue and faster recovery after loads. Loads of monotonous and long-lasting are not only not recommended, but also contraindicated. The physical development of children should be based on the inclusion of exercises for absolutely all muscle groups.
Rapid fatigue explains and featuresthe development of the cardiovascular system: wider the blood vessels, the shorter the path of blood flow, and hence the higher the rate of circulation. At high loads the child is quickly excited, the heart rate is accelerated, rhythms of contractions are violated. Hence the rapid fatigue. Moreover, it is difficult for a child's organism to cope with such energy leaps.
As for the nervous system, the processesexcitation in preschool children predominate on the processes of inhibition. That's why preschoolers are so unpredictable. Their movements are fast, impulsive, and attention is unstable. Inaccuracy and disorderly movements of the preschooler involve the movement of excess muscle groups, hence the additional stresses on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems.
Physical development of children must beis taken into account when planning physical activities and general diet. Metabolism in preschool age is very high, so for the correct overall formation of the body it is important to provide the child with adequate nutrition and long walks.
Preschoolers need physicalload, but they should be moderate. It is clear that inexperienced parents find it difficult to find a limit in high and low loads, corresponding to the age of their growing child. But taking into account the knowledge of fast fatigue and rapid recovery, characteristic of the preschooler, the physical development of children should be based on the most optimal variant for this age: short-term loads, breaks-frequent.
A good outlet will be sports sections, dances,pool. But it is important not just to give the child and go, but to find a coach who understands these age features, who has a certain program for working with preschoolers.
It's quite possible to be at home with a child. At observance of simple, elementary and at the same time important rules.
The room should be ventilated. The temperature is 22 ° C. At a lower temperature, a child can catch a cold, a higher temperature will give an additional and dangerous load to the heart. Make a schedule. Work out at a specific time. At all, not before going to sleep. Start with lung exercises, gradually adding time and complicating the exercises. All muscle groups must work.
Not everyone will get it. And not at once. Do not be nervous, do not put pressure on your child. Do not scold. Here you need not only time, but also patience. And remember: if the child is tired and feels bad - stop the studies.</ p>