In Russia, most waterways are navigableriver. One of them is Lena. In the world classification, it occupies 10th place in length and 8th in terms of fullness. It flows through the Irkutsk Region, Yakutia, Khabarovsk, Krasnoyarsk and Zabaikalsk Territories, the Amur Region, and Buryatia. It is practically the largest river in Russia; its entire basin is located on the territory of the Russian Federation. The length is 4 thousand km. Opens from the upper to the lower reaches, freezes in the reverse order. It feeds on rain and melted waters.
The source and the mouth
Characteristics of the Lena River begins with a consideration of its beginning and end - the source and mouth.
The largest river of Siberia originates ina small swamp located on the Baikal ridge. It is officially considered the source. Its length is 300 km. A small area on its slope is occupied by pine forests, sometimes there is a forest-steppe, just above the taiga. The rare forest can be seen at an altitude of 1400 m. Here the river bed is narrow enough.
In the middle course, located on the section betweenAldan and Vitim (tributaries of the Lena), the watercourse expands and turns into a full-flowing river, the depth of which reaches 20 m. After the entry of Vilyuya into it, it turns into a fairly large stream. Here its width is more than 10 km (in some areas this figure is tripled).
In the lower reaches, flowing through various mountains andridges, it flows into the Laptev Sea, which is located in the north of Siberia and is named after the brothers Khariton and Dmitry Laptev. The climate at the sea is severe: it is permanently confined by ice (with the exception of August and September).
Geography of the river
The economic use of the Lena River depends to a large extent on its geographic factors. The length of the stream is 4 thousand kilometers. The current is divided into three different sections:
- First: from the source to Vitim.
- The second one is from Vitim to Aldan.
- The third one is from the Aldan to the Laptev Sea.
Near the source of Lena, which is located a few kilometers from Lake Baikal, in the late 90s a small chapel was built, as a magnet attracts tourists from all over the country.
In the second section of the current, the length of the riveris 1415 km. All of it is located in Yakutia. Joining Vitim, Lena expands its territory. Here you can meet many small islands, some minerals are mined. The valley grows to 25 km. The left slope is gentle, and the right one is steeper and taller. Here grow forests, mostly coniferous, spread out meadows. In the Pokrovsk area, the current calms down, the speed does not exceed 1.2 m / s.
The river becomes gigantic in the third section. Its width exceeds 20 km, the depth is 20 m. The delta also begins only 140 km from the Laptev Sea.
Hydrology. Characteristics of the river
Lena is the only one in the region where it is possible to extract fossils. Here there are unique complexes.
A feature of this water flow can be calledthat in spring there are catastrophic high waters, often protracted. The river feeds with melt and rainwater, less often - groundwater. On the river, floods and low water often occur.
Often, the economic use of the Lena River depends on the hydrological regime, which sometimes is far from being the best.
In 1986, there was a maximum flow of the river to date: 402 km3. At the moment, this figure has decreased several times. Moreover, it constantly varies under the influence of solar activity, or rather, its cycles.
The ice regime hinders the economic useriver. There are often congestion of ice, and it is quite strong and thick. In particular, it is for this reason that during the spring melting large areas are flooded.
The map of the Lena River shows all navigable areas, because it is the main water artery of Yakutia. It is this flow that connects this region of the country with its neighbors. The northern delivery is carried out exactly according to the Lena.
Kachug - the first shipping site, but a littleabove it on the river there are only small vessels. Due to the shallow waters and potentially dangerous turns, the territory of the water flow from Ust-Kut to the tributary of Vitim is used minimally. This is in many ways hampering the economic use of the Lena River. Every year, work is carried out to deepen the bottom.
In addition to several ports, bridges are located on the stream. It is also planned to erect a special railroad crossing to facilitate the transportation of goods.
Economic use of the river
Lena gives her water to the settlements,located on its shores. In addition, it is designed for fishing. Due to the fact that there are no dams on it, the fish reproduce perfectly. Sturgeon is the most famous of the rare marine animals that live here. Previously, this commercial fish grew to 2 meters, but because of the poor ecological situation, the population crushed. In addition to sturgeon in Lena live and other, no less valuable species.
Fishing is the only use of the river by the population. The state does not build hydropower stations and dams on it, so the main purpose of the watercourse can be called only the transportation of goods.
The country's shipping rivers
The map of the Lena River, of course, is impressive. Its size will not leave anyone indifferent. However, this is not the only water flow in the Russian Federation that allows ships to move.
And although in general the country sometimes feels a sharp lack of water transport, there are 146 thousand kilometers of roads.
The shipping rivers of Russia are scattered all over our vast country. The main is the Volga-Kama basin. Here, water is transported bread, oil, building materials.
The most important arteries are:
- The Volga. The largest river in Europe. It has about 200 tributaries. It is also used for power generation.
- Kama. The most beautiful river in Russia. She was often sung in poems by poets, she was transferred to paintings by such artists as Meshkov, Shishkin and others.
- Oka. It begins on the Central Russian Upland and flows into the Volga. It is its largest tributary.
- Don. Initially, its source was Ivan-lake, but after a while it was replaced by Urvanku, because of the small amount of water. At present, the first source of the Don does not exist, in its place a reservoir has been formed.
The main problem of Lena is its ecologicalstate. It deteriorates every year, which prevents optimal economic use. To a large extent, pollution affects the climate, the discharge of sewage and the movement of various transport. If the government of the Russian Federation does not solve this problem, in a few years the population will lose the source of drinking water.</ p>