Duralumin is a material created on the basis ofpure aluminum with alloying elements, the inclusion of which in the composition of the melting changes the properties of the metal. Soft and lightweight aluminum acquires a load-bearing stability while preserving all the advantages of a clean element.
Duralumin is an alloy of aluminum with a smallthe amount of copper that is aged at a certain temperature in artificially created conditions. The material was invented in 1903 by Alfred Wilm, who served as an engineer at a German factory. During the experiments, he noticed a regularity, confirmed by long-term experiments. He found that if alloying aluminum and 4% of copper, and then tempering the resulting material at a temperature of + 500 ° C followed by rapid cooling and holding at room temperature for several days, a metal with increased strength values is obtained, while maintaining the plastic properties main element.
In the following years, alloys witha large number of additives, which increased the strength of the material. At the present stage, duralumin is a high-strength alloy, the composition of which, depending on the variety, may include copper, magnesium, silicon, zinc, etc.
Strength properties of duralumin demonstratehigh indicators - up to 370 MPa (strength of pure aluminum - 70-80 MPa), which makes the material in demand in many areas of industry. The alloy of aluminum with chemical elements, in certain proportions, varies the characteristics of the material obtained. Base alloy consists of classic proportions of ingredients.
The duraluminic composition has the following:
- Copper (Cu) - 0.5% of the total mass.
- Manganese (Mn) is 0.5% alloy.
- Magnesium (Mg) - 1.5% of the total mass.
- Silicon (Si) - 1.2%.
- Iron (Fe) is about 0.1% of the composition.
- Aluminum (Al) is the main element.
Basic types of alloys
There are several types of alloys that differ in their characteristics.
What can be duralumin (composition, ligatures and qualities)?
- Aluminum + manganese (Al + Mg), aluminum + magnesium(Al + Mn), the second name of "magnolia" - is characterized by resistance to corrosion, high soldering, welding. Poorly susceptible to cutting. Alloys of these compositions are not subjected to additional hardening. The material is used for the manufacture of pipes of gasoline pipelines, autodiators, tanks for various purposes, in construction works, etc.
- Aluminum + manganese + silicon (Al + Mg + Si),the alloy was called "avial". The properties of the duralumin of this composition are corrosion resistance, lightness and strength of welded joints, fine grain. Tempering takes place at a temperature of + 515-525 ° C with a sharp cooling in water (+ 20 ° C) for 10 days. The main sphere of application is products used in conditions of high humidity, manufacturing of materials, parts, machines in aircraft building, automotive industry, recently the avial replaces expensive steel in the details of mobile phones,
- Aluminum + copper + manganese (Al + Cu + Mg), orduralumin, - structural material, depending on the need to obtain final properties, the amount of each alloying element can vary. The alloy has found application in the aircraft industry, the space industry, for the production of high-speed railroad trains ("Sapsan"), etc. The disadvantage of the alloy is its corrosive instability. Duralumin sheet requires careful anti-corrosion treatment, which mainly occurs by applying to the surface of pure aluminum.
Duralumin is the main material foraircraft and space industries. The first application for aircraft occurred in 1911 in the construction of airships. In the 21st century there are more than ten brands of this light and durable material. For aircraft parts, the D16T brand is most often used, which includes nine metals, for example titanium, nickel, etc., and the ligature consists of copper, silicon and magnesium. The amount of aluminum in the alloy is limited to a standard content of 93%.
Not all alloys of duralumin are well suitedwelding, so many products are made on rivets and other types of fasteners. The main industrial application of the material was aircraft construction, car manufacturing, machine-tool construction. But not only high technologies use duralumin, for example, a boat for personal use made of this material, will last for more than 20 years, and with good care and prevention - and even longer.
In the shipbuilding of the material not onlyhulls of ships, but also a large number of internal parts of the hull, knots. Duralumin pipes, thick-walled and thin-walled, are used everywhere, from housing and utilities to gas pipelines. Rolled sheets are used in building structures.
Advantages and disadvantages
Duralumin is an alloy based on aluminum, which, like any material, has advantages. Among them:
- High static strength.
- Long service life.
- Low vulnerability to destruction.
- Stability to many aggressive environments, mechanical, temperature effects.
- Adapted to welded work (aluminum in its pure form reacts badly to welding seams).
- Numerous areas of application.
There is one significant disadvantage thatDuralumin is a susceptibility to corrosion damage. All products from the material are necessarily clad with pure aluminum or covered with primer, preventing the appearance of rust.
To buy the material is not difficult,the cost is formed depending on the component composition. Most of the plants producing non-ferrous metals produce duralumin. The price depends on many factors, in particular on the type of product, the scope of supply and other conditions. In the accompanying documents the manufacturer is obliged to indicate the percentage of the alloy, compliance with GOST, performance.
The cost of products made of duralumin (corner, pipe, sheet)starts from 580 rubles per kilogram. With an increase in the volume of supply, the price per ton of alloy pipes is about 510 thousand rubles. Duralumin wheels start at a price of 250 rubles per kilogram. A circle is a conventional designation of a workpiece of material, the cross section of which is a circle of different sizes, the length of the article reaches 3 meters.</ p>