Virtually no industry candispense with chemically-active substances. Additives are used in agriculture, food industry, during the manufacture of leather, in construction and in many other areas of human activity. Among all of them, a special place is occupied by salts of carbon-ammonium, which are universal.
Carbon ammonium salt
Carbon ammonium salt - an inorganic compound of white color, highly soluble in water, is a product of the interaction of carbonic acid and ammonium salts.
Crystals of matter in the open air decompose rapidly with the release of a large amount of ammonia and carbon dioxide, and then volatilize. There are two types of chemical compounds:
- Salts of carbon ammonium type B, which are actively used in the metallurgical industry, during the development of uranium ores, for the flotation process, neutralization of chrome leathers and painting products.
- Salts of grade A, which is used for the manufacture of organic products, the synthesis of chemical reagents.
All varieties of chemical compounds do not dissolve in ethanol and acetone. The substances are obtained by initiating oxidation-reduction reactions between ammonium salts and carbonic acid.
According to state standards, saltsammonium carbonate should have, in terms of dry substance, not less than 99% ammonium bicarbonate, ammonium carbonate - not more than 1% and water bound at the molecular level not more than 3%.
Precise chemical composition may vary depending on the field of application of the crystalline substance. So, for the food industry, the composition should be at least 20.9% NH3. The mass fraction of other compounds has a strictly regulated framework and should not exceed the following indicators:
- heavy metals - 5 * 10-4;
- arsenic - 1 * 10-4;
- iron and its valence compounds - 1 * 10-3;
- chlorine and chlorides - 1 * 10-3;
- insoluble in water compounds - 5 * 10-3.
These indicators are defined in Spec. TU U 6-04687873.025-95, chemical formula - NH4HCO3.
physical and chemical indicators
Coal ammonium salts have indicators that define them as a specific substance:
- a hue of crystals of matter can be represented by a white, pink or gray hue;
- the mass fraction of ammonia for group A should correspond to 21%, for grade B - 20.7%;
- the mass residue after calcination should not exceed 0.008% for type A, and not more than 0.02 for type B.
Only the substance corresponding to the dataparameters, can be defined as an ammoniumammonium salt. GOST 9325-79 fixes these provisions, as well as regulates the rules of production, transportation and storage, precautionary measures and safety.
Scope of application
The most widely distributed ammonium saltreceived in the food industry and agriculture. In the first area it is applied under the guise of supplement E503, often replaces food yeast and ammonium carbonate. For use, the substance is dissolved in water at a temperature of 20 aboutC and above, and then add to the formula mixture shortly before the rash flour.
Physicochemical parameters of the ammonium saltallow it to be used as fertilizer. The introduction of crystals of the substance is achieved by slowing or completely stopping the accumulation of nitrites in the soil, which has a beneficial effect on the maturation and quantity of the crop:
- Yield increases by 15-45%.
- The initial stage of fruiting crops occurs earlier for one or two weeks.
- Reduces the need for soils in phosphorus fertilizers.
- Promotes the formation of humus.
In our country, the production of fertilizers based on coal-ammonium salt is targeted at the domestic entrepreneur, why the price for products is much lower than the cost of foreign analogues.
Coal ammonium salts belong to grade 4danger. They contain two dangerous substances for human health - ammonia and carbon dioxide. The first element is extremely toxic, when inhaled, causes irritation. When poisoning affects the central nervous system, there is a headache, lacrimation, convulsions and other symptoms.
Carbon dioxide has a narcotic and soporific effect. In large quantities, destabilizes the respiratory center, causes suffocation and can cause death from lack of oxygen.
Therefore, it is possible to use ammonium saltsonly in special clothes, goggles, gloves, resistant to alkali, gas masks. After work, observe the rules of personal hygiene, the best place is a warm shower.</ p>