Most modern specialists are inclinedconsider logistics (and the basic principles of logistics) as a science on the basic principles of managing material and information flows in order to minimize costs, designed to ensure the maximum possible satisfaction of the needs of consumers. Integrative function - the view of production as a process of identifying and satisfying the material needs of consumers through the production of goods and services - is the logistical basis for managing various processes in the enterprise.
From the standpoint of constructive methodology, which has a theoretical and applied character, the principles of logistics can be represented in the form of two models:
- conceptual (explanatory) model;
- instrumental (transformative) model.
The first of these includes a meaningful description of certain concepts, arranged in an appropriate way in the problem field.
Instrumental same - a collection of funds,contributing to the achievement of the ultimate goal. The relationship between the conceptual and instrumental model is complementary, synthesizing such phenomena as the concept and principles of logistics, the theory and practice of logistics.
From the point of view of the conceptual model, logisticsincludes such concepts as material flow, concomitant flow, logistic function, logistic operation, logistic system, logistic link, logistic chain. Hence the conclusion that the principles of logistics are a very effective tool through which the optimization of management of material flows. In this sense, logistics can be viewed as an instrumental model that allows transforming an objective, existing reality, the existing state of affairs (being) into the desired state, allowing to achieve the desired goal (due).
Logistical actions with a material resourceare defined as elementary (operations) or complex (functions). The logistics principles in this case assume that both of them are aimed at converting these flows at the stage of procurement, production, marketing, storage, transportation, service and information support in the conditions of applying a certain logistic concept expressed by common slogans, such as "Just in time", "responding to demand," "slender production," or micrologistic systems based on these concepts.
The principles of logistics in modern economicconditions require a restructuring of the enterprise, since the logistics approach is to some extent opposed to the functional one, in which the objectives of the enterprise are diversified depending on the functions, and the overall goal becomes blurred and pursued by each participant of the business process to varying degrees. With the structural-functional approach, horizontal production processes are permeated by vertical management structures that operate semi-autonomously. The methodology of logistics is based on the principles opposite to the structural and functional way of organizing production, and is based on process-oriented horizontal structures that are created in enterprises in addition to the existing vertical structural and functional scheme. The essence of this methodology is the transformation of the processes necessary for the implementation of production tasks, into completed business processes. Only with this approach it is possible to subordinate all processes to the goals of business processes. Logistics contributes to a unified vision of the production process.</ p>