The main task facing any organization- Receiving a profit. The effectiveness of management directly depends on what functions and methods of management are used in the work. It is impossible to achieve good results if you do not structure work. Optimal organization of activities allow competently used principles and methods of management.
How are management methods classified?
1. Organizational and legal management methods allow to determine the main activity boundaries: the organizational and legal form of the structure of the organization of the company, the direction of activity and the conditions of operation, the rights and responsibilities of employees, etc.
2. Administrative methods of management, allow to organize the activities of the organization, based on the subordination of employees and the implementation of their instructions.
These methods encourage performance, but do not welcome initiative, reducing efficiency, because they do not take into account and do not use all opportunities.
3. Economic methods allow activating the activity of management, since they are based on material interest of employees. These methods, together with administrative methods, increase the effectiveness of the organization. As a result of lower costs leads to additional profits, from which employees are paid bonuses.
4. Social and economic methods of management, the effectiveness of which is to satisfy needs of a higher order than material ones. It is worth noting that these methods may not have an impact on people engaged in intellectual work.
5. Socio-psychological methods are designed to create a favorable psychological microclimate in the team and between the leader and subordinates; while they provide opportunities for employees to develop and implement, leading to their satisfaction and increasing the effectiveness of their work as a whole.
Main functions and methods of management constantlyrevised and improved. Management methods are not opposed, but interact. Equally closely intertwined are the principles and methods of management, since the former derive from the latter.
Consider the principles of management. They include
- the co-creation of creativity and nuchnost: the management is based on the knowledge and skills, and only sometimes intuition or impromptu is used;
- purposefulness for achieving specific goals and solving emerging problems;
- a combination of universality and specialization, implying an individual approach to solving specific problems;
- the sequence of actions to be performed;
- rational combination of centralized management and self-government;
- attention to the individual characteristics of employees, their abilities, as a means of increasing work efficiency;
- integrity of rights and responsibility at allthe levels of work that do not allow the employee's rights to exceed his responsibility, since it can lead to arbitrariness of the management team, and also to suppress the activity and the workers' initiative of the staff, as it leads to punishments;
- The competitiveness of the members of thepersonal interest of employees, based on material, moral and organizational incentives of the employee who has achieved the maximum results;
- maximum involvement of staff in the process making necessary management decisions. Participation in this process of employees of different levels leads to a more willing acceptance and implementation of decisions aimed at achieving certain goals, rather than those that descend from the leadership in an orderly manner.