Chemically dangerous objects are objects (be itlaboratories, institutions or enterprises), which are the place of storage, processing, use or transportation of hazardous chemicals that may harm the health of a well-educated population. Moreover, the quantity of transported substances on chemically dangerous objects exceeds the threshold value, and when they are destroyed, people, animals and the environment as a whole can be infected. Chemically dangerous objects are the chemical, oil refining, meat and dairy, food industries, bases and cold storage facilities with refrigeration facilities located on them, in which ammonia is used. In addition, chemically hazardous facilities are water treatment plants and pulp and paper enterprises that use chlorine in their work, as well as ports and railway stations on which there are ways where a rolling stock with chemically hazardous substances is located. Also to this type of facilities is absolutely any transport - whether it is a bicycle or an airplane that carries chemically dangerous goods. Chemically dangerous objects are also institutions of a scientific, curative or educational type that have their own chemical lab. Here you can also add warehouses, bases and other premises that store pesticides, and landfills where chemically hazardous substances and other industrial waste are "at rest". Most often at such dangerous objects are used acids (nitric and sulfuric), hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, carbon disulfide, chlorine and other chemicals.
Classification of chemically dangerous objects can be carried out on different grounds:
- storage technology for chemically hazardous substances;
- production characteristics (producing or consuming chemically hazardous substances that are accidentally disposed of).
Chemically dangerous objects are also divided into 4 classes.
|Classes||The number of people falling into the zone of infection during a chemical accident (thousands of people)||Radius of the sanitary protection zone surrounding the facility (in meters)||The percentage of the population that still becomes infected in the area of the alleged chemical contamination|
|1st||more than 75||1000||more than 50|
|3rd||less than 40||300||30-10|
|4th||0||100||less than 10|
The characteristic of chemically dangerous objects givesfar from comforting information about their safety. Any accidentally chemically dangerous substance can easily "invade" the environment, causing massive poisoning among the population. And it turns out in them thus to harm the surrounding world due to the physicochemical and toxic properties of these substances. The most important and decisive importance here are such properties as the temperature of ignition, flare, boiling and freezing, the aggregate state, corrosivity, solubility, viscosity, density, evaporation heat, volatility, diffusion coefficient, hydrolysis and saturated vapor pressure. But there are many other properties that also play an important role in the "life" of these dangerous substances and, as a consequence, 0 in people's lives.</ p>