In the history of the domestic automotive industry,the same number of successful developments, as well as unsuccessful, as large factories, and not very much. But in any case factory them. Likhachev - the Moscow ZIL - will stand alone. All his models, which went into mass production, invariably became successful.
What kind of association arises when a brand is mentionedZIL? Most often it is a hooded truck with round headlights, which even in the 21st century is called ZIL-130. But since the release of the last 130 th conveyor, many years have passed. He was replaced by 431410 ZIL as a flatbed truck. And 431412 ZIL - as the chassis for installation of many other variants of bodies. It is these two models that will be reviewed today.
Until now, the name is associated with the fact,that more than half a century of the existence of this brand modernization Zilov was carried out only from the inside. Appearance changed slightly or did not change at all. For example, in the picture above ZIL 431410 is an onboard variant, and just below these lines is an automobile crane (as they are written in the specifications), made on the basis of the chassis of the same ZIL.
The difference between the two cars is only in the body part. Before the remains the same - the hood, round headlights. Machines used by municipal services, for example, water-washing variants, also now use version 431412. At the same time, one can also see old ZIL-130 in the streets, although more than 30 years have passed since the plant was switched to a new car in 1984.
The date of birth of the 130th truck is considered to be1964, when the first modernized ZIL-130 moved off the assembly line. Until 1984, it was the main model of the plant. In 1984, two new versions were produced with an old hood, but with a new filling. The first goes onboard, and as a side branch - a truck without a body (chassis). The first was called 431410 ZIL, and the tasks of the second forced to process the already approved stuffing, and as a result the chassis was 431412 ZIL, and not the next upgrade of the on-board car.
But few will remember another ZIL, born onfactory around this time. He received a beskapotnym configuration - a bold decision for the time, and in 1977 the entire development of this model moved to Naberezhnye Chelny, subsequently received the name of KamAZ, and the Muscovites returned to the production of ZIL-130, which was produced before 1984.
Stages of assembly
It is interesting that the lateral branch, like the main oneoption, although it got the numbers from the Moscow plant, almost on it was not going to. In those years, the principle of developing additional equipment at other enterprises was applied, so 431412 ZIL left the plant, barely approved the design. More precisely, the cabs and frames were still assembled at the main enterprise, but such versions were not available for sale, but were sent directly to other factories where they received additional equipment.
The first use of the first 130th, andthen, and upgraded version can be called KA-2215, which was deciphered - the car crane. Then, with the introduction of a general indexing of the cranes (which is used today), he received the name KBA-2215. The letter "B" denoted "tower". Then went other modifications, of which for 10 years of using the new chassis was a great many.
Unlike the previous version, a new modelhas received a 5-speed transmission, with all (except the first) synchronized transmissions and the engine is also ZIL's development. The engine gave 150 hp. and paired with his own box produced quite good characteristics for that time. From the old model passed single-disk clutch with pressure springs on the periphery and a two-chamber carburetor. You can also note the air filter with double air purification.
The car had a high cross-country ability, thanks to the design of single wheels and the tire pressure regulation system, which was already widespread by that time.
For 10 years of use the car was repeatedly upgraded for the requirements of various additional equipment, and the final characteristic of ZIL-431412 was as follows:
- motor - ZIL-508.10 (150 hp);
- Load capacity 6 800 kg (in later versions due to reinforced frame up to 10,000);
- the maximum speed is 90 km / h;
- consumption - 26 liters;
- fuel - Аи-76;
- a tank - 170 l;
- power steering;
- three braking systems, another one came to connect the road train.
Normal work involved 26 liters of antifreeze(in cooling systems), 9 liters of M6 or M8 oil (for engine) and 6ST-90 battery. The total mass of ZIL-431412 was almost 12,000 kg, but it directly depended on the additional equipment used.
Application and models based on
In addition to the already described truck crane,Modernized chassis also assembled KS-2561 (self-propelled crane) and other equipment used for utility needs. For example, autotowers, watering machines, sprinklers.
Ks2561K was widely used in low-riseconstruction due to its simplicity, reliability and speed of installation. In the basic configuration, the crane has an 8 m boom (with the possibility of extending to 12 m thanks to a special insert). The crane drive from the car engine through the transmission. The boom, load and rotary mechanism have their own braking systems. In addition to raising by 8 (or 12) meters, the load can be lowered to a depth of 5 meters or move with it on a hook.
The tank installed on the chassis ZIL-431412could be used on watering vehicles (water supply), for the transport of products (milk or water). Tank cars for fuel transportation are widely used (petrol stations and mobile filling stations).
One of the solutions based on this model wasaerial platform, designed to carry out any work at a certain height. It was a two-piece structure constructed as a car crane, but instead of a boom a hydraulic structure with a cradle was used. The lifting part consisted of two parts and could raise the basket to a height of 22 m. The weight of the cradle and the volume were calculated so that two people could work in it, without interfering with each other. To fix the lifting structure while traveling on roads over the roof of the cabin, special blocks were installed, the same as for attaching a conventional crane boom. Like the crane, it was possible to put additional hydraulic supports at the aerial platform to increase stability.
The development of 130 ZIL has entailed aA list of possible modifications of both the machine itself and the additional parts. Many devices, developed on the basis of the 130th, successfully continued to be used on the chassis of the new model - 431412 ZIL.</ p>